SHIMRON (Heb. שִׁמְרוֹן), Canaanite city, first mentioned in the Egyptian Execration Texts (19th–18th centuries B.C.E.; E 55), where it appears as Šmwʾnw; it appears as Šmʿn in the list of conquered cities of Thutmosis III (15th century B.C.E.; No. 35). In the el-Amarna letters, Šamu-Adda, king of Šamhuna, is mentioned as an ally of the king of Acre (Letters 8:13; 224; 225:4). All these texts indicate a name like Šimʿon for the city; in the Bible, however, it occurs as Shimron, with the Septuagint variant Συμοων. A king of Shimron took part in the coalition led by Jabin of Hazor and is listed among the kings defeated by Joshua (Josh. 11:1; 12:20; the name Shimron-Meron is explained in several manuscripts of the Septuagint as referring to two kings, one of Shimron and one of Meron). In Joshua 19:15, Shimron is listed among the cities of Zebulun, together with Nahalal and Beth-Lehem of Galilee. It appears in later periods as Simonias, a village on the frontier of Galilee, 60 stades (c. 7½ mi., 12 km.) from Gaba (Jos., Life, 115). It is mentioned as Simʿoniya in talmudic sources (Tosef. Shev. 7:13; TJ, Meg. 1:1, 70a). However, various scholars doubt the identification of biblical Shimron with Shimʿon-Simonias. Shimron is identified with the present-day Khirbat Sīmūniyya, a prominent tell with springs in the vicinity; pottery on the surface includes types of the Early to Middle Bronze Ages, and remains of a synagogue have been identified there. -BIBLIOGRAPHY: Maisler, in: BJPES, 1 (4), 1ff.; idem, in: Eretz Israel, 3 (1954), 28; Abel, Geog, 2 (1938), 464; Aharoni, Land, index. (Michael Avi-Yonah)

Encyclopedia Judaica. 1971.

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